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This LibGuide seeks to highlight information on Africa and includes country specific links, maps, Web sites containing news, art, business, activism information, online journals as well as links to the U.S. Africa Command that will be continually updated
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The continent of Africa is comprised of fifty-four countries and 797 million people speaking over one thousand languages. As Africa's impact in the world community continues to grow, the understanding of African countries, their population and their economies is vital to promoting a harmonious relationship with the United States and our national security interest in this region.

This LibGuide seeks to highlight information on Africa and includes country-specific links, maps, websites containing news, art, business, activism information, online journals as well as links to the U.S. Africa Command.

Links to books and articles by noted experts will be continuously updated to keep pace with the ever expanding research in the area of African studies.

We welcome your feedback!

 

History of the U. S. Military Involvement in Africa

 
FACT SHEET:  History of the U.S. Military Involvement in Africa
Congressional Research Service
 
WASHINGTON, D.C.,
 
Jun 12, 2008 -- The following is a summary of Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports on the history of U.S. military involvement in Africa.  The Congressional Research Service is part of the Library of Congress, and its analysts produce unbiased nonpartisan reports for members of Congress and their staffs.  The information in this timeline is contained in CRS Report RL32170, "Instances of Use of United States Arned Forces Abroad, 1798 - 2007."  Additional research by U.S. Africa Command also has contributed to this timeline.

The United States military has been involved with Africa for more than two centuries, beginning with the Barbary Wars of 1801-05 and 1815, continuing to the World War II North Africa Campaign to the present day. In the 1980s, the U.S. military broadened its role in U.S. policy in Africa through three U.S. regional commands: the U.S. European Command, the U.S. Central Command, and the U.S. Pacific Command. In 2007, the U.S. Africa Command was formed, enabling the Department of Defense to better address the security and related needs of the continent.

Below is a timeline highlighting U.S. military activity in Africa:

1801-05
Tripoli. The First Barbary War included the U.S.S. George Washington and Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a few marines landed with United States Agent William Eaton to raise a force against Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war but not the United States, although Congress authorized U.S. military action by statute.

1815
Algiers. The Second Barbary War was declared against the United States by the Dey of Algiers of the Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military expedition by statutes. A large fleet under Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.

Tripoli. After securing an agreement from Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.

1820-23
Africa. Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress.

1843
Africa. November 29 to December 16. Four United States vessels demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory Coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on American seamen and shipping.

1851
Johanns Island (east of Africa). August. Forces from the U.S. sloop of war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.

1860
Angola, Portuguese West Africa. March 1. American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.

1882
Egypt. July 14 to 18. American forces landed to protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.

1904
Tangier, Morocco. "We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisula dead." A squadron demonstrated to force release of a kidnapped American. Marines were landed to protect the consul general.

1912
Liberia. With the agreement of the government of Liberia, the U.S. Army assigned an African American officer and other U.S. soldiers to train the Liberian Frontier Force.

1942-1943
Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The United States entered World War II in December1941. On November 8, 1942, the U.S. and Allied coalition landed in Morocco and Algeria through an amphibious operation known as "Operation Torch." The landing points allowed the United States and its allies to gain control of Axis-occupied French North Africa. Fighting continued into Tunisia, where U.S. forces took heavy casualties. North Africa was then used as a staging area for amphibious landings in Southern Europe.

1942-1945
Liberia After the United States entered World War II, Roberts Field in Monrovia became a major wartime transit point for thousands of American soldiers and for Allied operations in North Africa and Southern Europe.

1945-1970
Libya The United States Air Force stationed several thousand personnel at Wheelus Air Base near Tripoli, which served as a long-range bomber base in the southern Mediterranean. The United States withdrew from the base at the request of the Libyan government.

1956
Egypt. A marine battalion evacuated U.S. nationals and other persons from Alexandria during the Suez crisis.

1964
Congo. The United States sent four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.

1967
Congo. The United States sent three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.

1978
Zaire. From May 19 through June 1978, the United States used military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue operations in Zaire.

1981
Libya. On August 19, 1981, U.S. planes based on the carrier U.S.S. Nimitz shot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The United States periodically held freedom of navigation exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered international waters by the United States.

1983
Egypt. After a Libyan plane bombed a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and
Egypt appealed for assistance, the United States dispatched an AWACS electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.

1983
Chad. On August 8, 1983, President Reagan reported the deployment of two AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical support forces to assist Chad against Libyan and rebel forces.

1986
Libya. On March 26, 1986, President Reagan reported to Congress that, on March 24 and 25, U.S. forces, while engaged in freedom of navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, had been attacked by Libyan missiles and the United States had responded with missiles.

1986
Libya. On April 16, 1986, President Reagan reported that U.S. air and naval forces had conducted bombing strikes on terrorist facilities and military installations in Libya.

1989
Libya. On January 4, 1989, two U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft based on the U.S.S. John F. Kennedy shot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The U.S. pilots said the Libyan planes had demonstrated hostile intentions.

1990
Liberia. On August 6, 1990, President Bush reported that a reinforced rifle company had been sent to provide additional security to the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated U.S. citizens from Liberia.

1991
Zaire. On September 25-27, 1991, after widespread looting and rioting broke out in Kinshasa, U.S. Air Force C-141s transported 100 Belgian troops and equipment into Kinshasa. U.S. planes also carried 300 French troops into the Central African Republic and hauled back American citizens and third country nationals from locations outside Zaire.

1992
Sierra Leone. On May 3, 1992, U.S. military planes evacuated Americans from Sierra Leone, where military leaders had overthrown the government.

Somalia. On December 10, 1992, President George H.W. Bush reported that he had deployed U.S. armed forces to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a U.N. Security CRS-34 Council Resolution determining that the situation constituted a threat to international peace. This operation, called Operation Restore Hope, was part of a U.S.-led United Nations Unified Task Force (UNITAF) and came to an end on May 4, 1993. U.S. forces continued to participate in the successor United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II), which the U.N. Security Council authorized to assist Somalia in political reconciliation and restoration of peace.

1993
Somalia. On June 10, 1993, President Clinton reported that in response to attacks against U.N. forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the U.S. Quick Reaction Force in the area had participated in military action to quell the violence. On July 1 President Clinton reported further air and ground military operations on June 12 and June 17 aimed at neutralizing military capabilities that had impeded U.N. efforts to deliver humanitarian relief and promote national reconstruction, and additional instances occurred in the following months.

1994
Rwanda. On April 12, 1994, President Clinton reported that combat-equipped U.S. military forces had been deployed to Burundi to conduct possible non-combatant evacuation operations of U.S. citizens and other third-country nationals from Rwanda, where widespread fighting had broken out. By September 30, 1994, all U.S. troops had departed from Rwanda and surrounding nations. In the Defense Appropriations Act for FY1995 (P.L. 103-335, signed September 30, 1994), Congress barred use of funds for U.S. military participation in or around Rwanda after October 7, 1994, except for any action necessary to protect U.S. citizens.

1995
Somalia. On March 1, 1995, President Clinton reported that on February 27, 1995,
1,800 combat-equipped U.S. armed forces personnel began deployment into Mogadishu,
Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned there to the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II). This mission was completed on March 3, 1995.

1996
Liberia. On April 11, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that on April 9,
1996 due to the "deterioration of the security situation and the resulting threat to
American citizens" in Liberia he had ordered U.S. military forces to evacuate from that country "private U.S. citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken refuge in the U.S. Embassy compound...."

Liberia. On May 20, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress the continued deployment of U.S. military forces in Liberia to evacuate both American citizens and other foreign personnel, and to respond to various isolated "attacks on the American Embassy complex" in Liberia. The President noted that the deployment of U.S. forces would continue until there was no longer any need for enhanced security at the Embassy and a requirement to maintain an evacuation capability in the country.

1996
Central African Republic. On May 23, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress the deployment of U.S. military personnel to Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from that country of "private U.S. citizens and certain U.S. Government employees," and to provide "enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui."

1996
Rwanda and Zaire. On December 2, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that to support the humanitarian efforts of the United Nations regarding refugees in Rwanda and the Great Lakes Region of Eastern Zaire, he had authorized the use of U.S. personnel and aircraft, including AC-130U planes to help in surveying the region in support of humanitarian operations, although fighting still was occurring in the area, and U.S. aircraft had been subject to fire when on flight duty.

1997
Congo and Gabon. On March 27, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that, on March 25, 1997, a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel had been deployed to Congo and Gabon to provide enhanced security for American private citizens, government employees, and selected third country nationals in Zaire, and to be available for any necessary evacuation operation.


1997
Sierra Leone. On May 30, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that on May 29 and May 30, 1997, U.S. military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone, CRS-35 to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens.

1998
Guinea-Bissau. On June 12, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that, on June
10, 1998, in response to an army mutiny in Guinea-Bissau endangering the U.S. Embassy, U.S. government employees and citizens in that country, he had deployed a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel to Dakar, Senegal, to remove such individuals, as well as selected third country nationals, from the city of Bissau. The deployment continued until the necessary evacuations were completed.

Kenya and Tanzania. On August 10, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that
he had deployed, on August 7, 1998, a Joint Task Force of U.S. military personnel to Nairobi, Kenya, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related to the bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. He also reported that teams of 50-100 security personnel had arrived in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to enhance the security of the U.S. Embassies and citizens there.

Afghanistan and Sudan. On August 21, 1998, by letter, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had authorized airstrikes on August 20th against camps and installations in Afghanistan and Sudan used by the Osama bin Laden terrorist organization. The President did so based on what he viewed as convincing information that the bin Laden organization was responsible for the bombings, on August 7, 1998, of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

Liberia. On September 29, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that on September 27, 1998 he had, due to political instability and civil disorder in Liberia, deployed a stand-by response and evacuation force of 30 U.S. military personnel to augment the security force at the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia, and to provide for a rapid evacuation capability, as needed, to remove U.S. citizens and government personnel from the country.

1999
Kenya. On February 25, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress that he was continuing to deploy U.S. military personnel in that country to assist in providing security for the U.S. embassy and American citizens in Nairobi, pending completion of renovations of the American embassy facility in Nairobi, subject of a terrorist bombing in August 1998.

2000
Sierra Leone. On May 12, 2000, President Clinton, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" reported to Congress that he had ordered a U.S. Navy patrol craft to deploy to Sierra Leone to be ready to support evacuation operations from that country if needed. He also authorized a U.S. C-17 aircraft to deliver "ammunition, and other supplies and equipment" to Sierra Leone in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations there.

2002
Cote d'Ivoire. On September 26, 2002, President Bush reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that in response to a rebellion in Cote d'Ivoire that he had on September 25, 2002 sent U.S. military personnel into Cote d'Ivoire to assist in the evacuation of American citizens and third country nationals from the city of Bouake; and otherwise assist in other evacuations as necessary.

Horn of Africa Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa was established at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, on October 19, 2002. In November 2002, personnel embarked on a 28-day training cruise aboard USS Mount Whitney, and arrived in the Horn of Africa on Dec. 8, 2002.

2003
Djibouti. Personnel with Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa operated from the USS Mount Whitney until May 13, 2003, when the mission transitioned ashore to Camp Lemonnier in Djibouti City, Djibouti.

Liberia. On June 9, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that on June 8 he had sent about 35 combat-equipped U.S. military personnel into Monrovia, Liberia, to augment U.S. Embassy security forces, to aid in the possible evacuation of U.S. citizens if necessary. The President also noted that he had sent about 34 combat-equipped U.S. military personnel to help secure the U.S. Embassy in Nouakchott, Mauritania, and to assist in evacuation of American citizens if required. They were expected to arrive at the U.S. embassy by June 10, 2003. Back-up and support personnel were sent to Dakar, Senegal, to aid in any necessary evacuation from either Liberia or Mauritania.

Liberia. On August 13, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that in response to conditions in Liberia, on August 11, 2003, he had authorized about 4,350 U.S. combat-equipped military personnel to enter Liberian territorial waters in support of U.N. and West African States efforts to restore order and provide humanitarian assistance in Liberia.

2004
Horn of Africa On November 4, 2004, the President sent to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the global war on terrorism." These deployments, support or military operations include activities in Afghanistan, Djibouti, as well as Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. In this report, the President noted that U.S. anti-terror related activities were underway in Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea..

2005
Horn of Africa / East Africa On May 20, 2005, the President sent to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the global war on terrorism," as well as operations in Iraq. U.S. forces are also deployed in Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, Eritrea, and Djibouti assisting in "enhancing counter-terrorism capabilities" of these nations.

 

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Africa

 

 

Africa:  54 countries. Over 1,000 languages. 797 million people.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/africa/

 

Countries of Africa

Algeria

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Angola

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Benin

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Botswana

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Burkina Faso

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Burundi

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Cameroon

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Cape Verde

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Central African Republic

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Chad

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Comoros

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Congo (Brazzaville)

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Congo (DRC, Zaire)

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Cote d'Ivoire

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Djibouti

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Egypt

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Equatorial Guinea

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Eritrea

 

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Ethiopia

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Gabon

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Gambia

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Ghana

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Guinea

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Guinea-Bissau

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Kenya

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Lesotho

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Liberia

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Libya

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Madagascar

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Malawi

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Mali

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Mauritania

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Mauritius

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Morocco

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Mozambique

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Namibia

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Niger

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Nigeria

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Reunion

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Rwanda

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Sao Tome & Principe

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Senegal

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Seychelles

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Sierra Leone

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Somalia

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South Africa

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Sudan

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Swaziland

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Tanzania

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Togo

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Tunisia

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Uganda

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Western Sahara

 

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Zambia

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Zimbabwe

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