The world will face increasingly complex population and migration dynamics in coming decades. Global population surpassed 7 billion in 2011 and, according to UN projections, the next milestone of 8 billion will occur in 2023, and could reach 9.8 billion by 2050. There are two major demographic trends today. Low birth rates combined with increased longevity, in China, Brazil, Russia, Japan, and parts of Europe are beginning to challenge the health and financial security of their elderly populations.
At the same time, developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia are adding more than 80 million people each year—exacerbating poverty and, in some countries, impacting environmental sustainability particularly with respect to access to food and water.