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Ethics and Emerging Military Technology (EEMT): Artificial Intelligence (AI)
This research guide is an aid to those looking for information on the subject of ethics, including military ethics, ethics and technology, society and art. It contains links to websites, newsfeeds, the library catalog, and suggested databases.
A. I.: its nature and future by Margaret A. BodenThe applications of Artificial Intelligence lie all around us; in our homes, schools and offices, in our cinemas, in art galleries and - not least - on the Internet. The results of Artificial Intelligence have been invaluable to biologists, psychologists, and linguists in helping to understandthe processes of memory, learning, and language from a fresh angle.As a concept, Artificial Intelligence has fuelled and sharpened the philosophical debates concerning the nature of the mind, intelligence, and the uniqueness of human beings. Margaret A. Boden reviews the philosophical and technological challenges raised by Artificial Intelligence, consideringwhether programs could ever be really intelligent, creative or even conscious, and shows how the pursuit of Artificial Intelligence has helped us to appreciate how human and animal minds are possible.
Call Number: TA347 .A78 B63 2016
Publication Date: 2016
Armed Drones and the Ethics of War by Christian EnemarkThis book assesses the ethical implications of using armed unmanned aerial vehicles ('hunter-killer drones') in contemporary conflicts. The American way of war is trending away from the heroic and towards the post-heroic, driven by a political preference for air-powered management of strategic risks and the reduction of physical risk to US personnel. The recent use of drones in the War on Terror has demonstrated the power of this technology to transcend time and space, but there has been relatively little debate in the United States and elsewhere over the embrace of what might be regarded as politically desirable and yet morally worrisome: risk-free killing. Arguably, the absence of a relationship of mutual risk between putative combatants poses a fundamental challenge to the status of war as something morally distinguishable from other forms of violence, and it also undermines the professional virtue of the warrior as a courageous risk-taker. This book considers the use of armed drones in the light of ethical principles that are intended to guard against unjust increases in the incidence and lethality of armed conflict. The evidence and arguments presented indicate that, in some respects, the use of armed drones is to be welcomed as an ethically superior mode of warfare. Over time, however, their continued and increased use is likely to generate more challenges than solutions, and perhaps do more harm than good. This book will be of much interest to students of the ethics of war, airpower, counter-terrorism, strategic studies and security studies in general.
Call Number: UG479 .E74 2014
Publication Date: 2013
Artificial Intelligence by Saswat Sarangi; Pankaj SharmaWhat will the future be? A dystopian landscape controlled by machines or a brave new world full of possibilities? Perhaps the answer lies with Artificial Intelligence (AI)¿a phenomenon much beyond technology that has, continues to, and will shape lives in ways we do not understand yet. This book traces the evolution of AI in contemporary history. It analyses how AI is primarily being driven by "capital" as the only "factor of production" and its consequences for the global political economy. It further explores the dystopian prospect of mass unemployment by AI and takes up the ethical aspects of AI and its possible use in undermining natural and fundamental rights. A tract for the times, this volume will be a major intervention in an area that is heavily debated but rarely understood. It will be essential reading for researchers and students of digital humanities, politics, economics, science and technology studies, physics, and computer science. It will also be key reading for policy makers, cyber experts and bureaucrats.
Data Mining for Social Robots by Yasser Mohammad; Toyoaki NishidaThis book explores an approach to social robotics based solely on autonomous unsupervised techniques and positions it within a structured exposition of related research in psychology, neuroscience, HRI, and data mining. The authors present an autonomous and developmental approach that allows the robot to learn interactive behavior by imitating humans using algorithms from time-series analysis and machine learning. The first part provides a comprehensive and structured introduction to time-series analysis, change point discovery, motif discovery and causality analysis focusing on possible applicability to HRI problems. Detailed explanations of all the algorithms involved are provided with open-source implementations in MATLAB enabling the reader to experiment with them. Imitation and simulation are the key technologies used to attain social behavior autonomously in the proposed approach. Part two gives the reader a wide overview of research in these areas in psychology, and ethology. Based on this background, the authors discuss approaches to endow robots with the ability to autonomously learn how to be social. Data Mining for Social Robots will be essential reading for graduate students and practitioners interested in social and developmental robotics.
Call Number: QA76.9 .D343 M63 2015
Publication Date: 2016
The Deep Learning Revolution by Terrence J. SejnowskiHow deep learning--from Google Translate to driverless cars to personal cognitive assistants--is changing our lives and transforming every sector of the economy. The deep learning revolution has brought us driverless cars, the greatly improved Google Translate, fluent conversations with Siri and Alexa, and enormous profits from automated trading on the New York Stock Exchange. Deep learning networks can play poker better than professional poker players and defeat a world champion at Go. In this book, Terry Sejnowski explains how deep learning went from being an arcane academic field to a disruptive technology in the information economy. Sejnowski played an important role in the founding of deep learning, as one of a small group of researchers in the 1980s who challenged the prevailing logic-and-symbol based version of AI. The new version of AI Sejnowski and others developed, which became deep learning, is fueled instead by data. Deep networks learn from data in the same way that babies experience the world, starting with fresh eyes and gradually acquiring the skills needed to navigate novel environments. Learning algorithms extract information from raw data; information can be used to create knowledge; knowledge underlies understanding; understanding leads to wisdom. Someday a driverless car will know the road better than you do and drive with more skill; a deep learning network will diagnose your illness; a personal cognitive assistant will augment your puny human brain. It took nature many millions of years to evolve human intelligence; AI is on a trajectory measured in decades. Sejnowski prepares us for a deep learning future.
Call Number: Q325.5 .S45 2018
Publication Date: 2018
The End of the Beginning by Ben Goertzel; Ted Goertzel (As told to)A deep, diverse edited volume addressing the most critical issues regarding the future of humanity and intelligence -- with chapters authored by a who's-who of leading futurist thinkers and doers. According to Vernor Vinge, Ray Kurzweil and a rapidly increasing chorus of techno-futurists, we are living on the brink of a technological Singularity - a time when machines will become vastly more intelligent than humans. In such a scenario, death, disease and everyday material scarcity will be radically diminished, and life will be dramatically different in many other ways. But what will the path to this amazing future look like? How will human life grow and unfold as technology advances and Singularity approaches? The chapters in this book approach this issue from the perspectives of multiple visionary authors from around the globe, covering topics such as the impact of life extension, the future of money and exchange, the future of human psychology, biological self-modification, intelligence enhancement, automation and escalating unemployment, the possibility of global war between pro and anti technology forces, the impact of future technology on Asia and Africa, the emerging Global Brain, the future of surveillance and privacy, and much more. There are no easy or definite answers here - but lots of fascinating questions to explore. CONTENTS Chapter One: Predicting the Age of Post-Human Intelligences, by Ted Goertzel and Ben Goertzel Chapter Two: A Tale of Two Transitions, by Robin Hanson Chapter Three: Longer Lives on the Brink of Global Population Contraction: A Report from 2040, by Max More Chapter Four: Implanting Post-Human Intelligence in Human Bodies, by John Hewitt Chapter Five: The Singularity and the Methuselarity: Similarities and Differences, by Aubrey de Grey Chapter Six: Robotics and AI: Impacts Felt on Every Aspect of Our Future World, by Daryl Nazareth Chapter Seven: Robotics, AI, the Luddite Fallacy and the Future of the Job Market, by Wayne Radinsky Chapter Eight: Moral Responsibility and Autonomous Machines, by David Burke Chapter Nine: How Will the Artilect War Start?, by Hugo de Garis Chapter Ten: Return to Eden? Promises and Perils on the Road to Global Superintelligence, by Francis Heylighen Chapter Eleven: Distributing Cognition: From Local Brains to the Global Brain, by Clément Vidal Chapter Twelve: A World of Views: A World of Interacting Post-human Intelligences, by Viktoras Veitas and David Weinbaum (Weaver) Chapter Thirteen: Chinese Perspectives on the Approach to the Singularity, by Mingyu Huang Chapter Fourteen: Africa Today and the Shadow of the Coming Singularity, by Hruy Tsegaye Chapter Fifteen: The World's First Decentralized System for Financial and Legal Transaction, by Chris Odom Chapter Sixteen: Beyond Money: Offer Networks, a Potential Infrastructure for a Post-Money Economy, by Ben Goertzel Chapter Seventeen: Sousveillance and AGI, by Ben Goertzel and Stephan Vladimir Bugaj Chapter Eighteen: The Future of Human Nature, by Ben Goertzel Chapter Nineteen: Capitalism, Socialism, Singularitarianism, by Ted Goertzel Chapter Twenty: Toward a Human-Friendly Post-Singularity World, by Ben Goertzel Chapter Twenty-one: Looking Backward from 2100, by Ben Goertzel and Ted Goertzel
Call Number: CB161 .E54 2015
Publication Date: 2015
The Fourth Age by Byron Reese"The Fourth Age not only discusses what the rise of A.I. will mean for us, it also forces readers to challenge their preconceptions. And it manages to do all this in a way that is both entertaining and engaging." --The New York Times As we approach a great turning point in history when technology is poised to redefine what it means to be human, The Fourth Age offers fascinating insight into AI, robotics, and their extraordinary implications for our species. In The Fourth Age, Byron Reese makes the case that technology has reshaped humanity just three times in history: - 100,000 years ago, we harnessed fire, which led to language. - 10,000 years ago, we developed agriculture, which led to cities and warfare. - 5,000 years ago, we invented the wheel and writing, which lead to the nation state. We are now on the doorstep of a fourth change brought about by two technologies: AI and robotics. The Fourth Age provides extraordinary background information on how we got to this point, and how--rather than what--we should think about the topics we'll soon all be facing: machine consciousness, automation, employment, creative computers, radical life extension, artificial life, AI ethics, the future of warfare, superintelligence, and the implications of extreme prosperity. By asking questions like "Are you a machine?" and "Could a computer feel anything?", Reese leads you through a discussion along the cutting edge in robotics and AI, and, provides a framework by which we can all understand, discuss, and act on the issues of the Fourth Age, and how they'll transform humanity.
Call Number: Q335 .R453 2018
Publication Date: 2018
Homo Deus by Yuval Noah HarariYuval Noah Harari, author of the critically-acclaimed New York Times bestseller and international phenomenon Sapiens, returns with an equally original, compelling, and provocative book, turning his focus toward humanity’s future, and our quest to upgrade humans into gods. Over the past century humankind has managed to do the impossible and rein in famine, plague, and war. This may seem hard to accept, but, as Harari explains in his trademark style—thorough, yet riveting—famine, plague and war have been transformed from incomprehensible and uncontrollable forces of nature into manageable challenges. For the first time ever, more people die from eating too much than from eating too litt≤ more people die from old age than from infectious diseases; and more people commit suicide than are killed by soldiers, terrorists and criminals put together. The average American is a thousand times more likely to die from binging at McDonalds than from being blown up by Al Qaeda. What then will replace famine, plague, and war at the top of the human agenda? As the self-made gods of planet earth, what destinies will we set ourselves, and which quests will we undertake? Homo Deus explores the projects, dreams and nightmares that will shape the twenty-first century—from overcoming death to creating artificial life. It asks the fundamental questions: Where do we go from here? And how will we protect this fragile world from our own destructive powers? This is the next stage of evolution. This is Homo Deus. With the same insight and clarity that made Sapiens an international hit and a New York Times bestseller, Harari maps out our future.
Call Number: CB428 .H36613 2017
Publication Date: 2017
Just Ordinary Robots by Lambèr Royakkers; Rinie van EstA social robot is a robot that interacts and communicates with humans or other autonomous physical agents by following social behaviors and rules attached to its role. We seem to accept the use of robots that perform dull, dirty, and dangerous jobs. But how far do we want to go with the automation of care for children and the elderly, or the killing of terrorists? Would we be setting humanity aside if we accepted such automation? Just Ordinary Robots: Automation from Love to War provides a socially involved, yet sober, view into the new age of robots. It supplies a cutting-edge look at robot technologies, including what these technologies are capable of and the ethical and regulatory questions they raise. The book surveys the various types of social robots and examines their social significance in homes, health care, traffic, the police, and the military. Considering the technical characteristics and societal expectations of robots in these areas, it explores what is possible right now in terms of robot technologies. It also looks into the social, ethical, and regulatory issues future robot technologies will create. The text provides authoritative insights into the social significance of robots for the medium and long term. Illustrating the political, administrative, and regulatory consequences related to each area, it highlights key points that need to be publicly discussed or put on the agenda by today's politicians and policy makers.
Call Number: TJ211.495 .R69 2016
Publication Date: 2015
Life 3. 0 by Max TegmarkNew York Times Best Seller How will Artificial Intelligence affect crime, war, justice, jobs, society and our very sense of being human? The rise of AI has the potential to transform our future more than any other technology--and there's nobody better qualified or situated to explore that future than Max Tegmark, an MIT professor who's helped mainstream research on how to keep AI beneficial. How can we grow our prosperity through automation without leaving people lacking income or purpose? What career advice should we give today's kids? How can we make future AI systems more robust, so that they do what we want without crashing, malfunctioning or getting hacked? Should we fear an arms race in lethal autonomous weapons? Will machines eventually outsmart us at all tasks, replacing humans on the job market and perhaps altogether? Will AI help life flourish like never before or give us more power than we can handle? What sort of future do you want? This book empowers you to join what may be the most important conversation of our time. It doesn't shy away from the full range of viewpoints or from the most controversial issues--from superintelligence to meaning, consciousness and the ultimate physical limits on life in the cosmos.
Call Number: Q334.7 .T44 2017
Publication Date: 2017
Machine Ethics and Robot Ethics by Wendell Wallach (Editor)Once the stuff of science fiction, recent progress in artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning means that these rapidly advancing technologies are finally coming into widespread use within everyday life. Such rapid development in these areas also brings with it a host of social, political and legal issues, as well as a rise in public concern and academic interest in the ethical challenges these new technologies pose. This volume is a collection of scholarly work from leading figures in the development of both robot ethics and machine ethics; it includes essays of historical significance which have become foundational for research in these two new areas of study, as well as important recent articles. The research articles selected focus on the control and governance of computational systems; the exploration of ethical and moral theories using software and robots as laboratories or simulations; inquiry into the necessary requirements for moral agency and the basis and boundaries of rights; and questions of how best to design systems that are both useful and morally sound. Collectively the articles ask what the practical ethical and legal issues, arising from the development of robots, will be over the next twenty years and how best to address these future considerations.
Call Number: TJ211 .M296 2017
Publication Date: 2016
The Promise of Artificial Intelligence by Brian Cantwell SmithAn argument that--despite dramatic advances in the field--artificial intelligence is nowhere near developing systems that are genuinely intelligent. In this provocative book, Brian Cantwell Smith argues that artificial intelligence is nowhere near developing systems that are genuinely intelligent. Second wave AI, machine learning, even visions of third-wave AI: none will lead to human-level intelligence and judgment, which have been honed over millennia. Recent advances in AI may be of epochal significance, but human intelligence is of a different order than even the most powerful calculative ability enabled by new computational capacities. Smith calls this AI ability "reckoning," and argues that it does not lead to full human judgment--dispassionate, deliberative thought grounded in ethical commitment and responsible action. Taking judgment as the ultimate goal of intelligence, Smith examines the history of AI from its first-wave origins ("good old-fashioned AI," or GOFAI) to such celebrated second-wave approaches as machine learning, paying particular attention to recent advances that have led to excitement, anxiety, and debate. He considers each AI technology's underlying assumptions, the conceptions of intelligence targeted at each stage, and the successes achieved so far. Smith unpacks the notion of intelligence itself--what sort humans have, and what sort AI aims at. Smith worries that, impressed by AI's reckoning prowess, we will shift our expectations of human intelligence. What we should do, he argues, is learn to use AI for the reckoning tasks at which it excels while we strengthen our commitment to judgment, ethics, and the world.
Call Number: Q334.7 .S65 2019
Publication Date: 2019
The Quest for Artificial Intelligence by Nils J. NilssonArtificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. This book traces the history of the subject, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today's AI engineers. AI is becoming more and more a part of everyone's life. The technology is already embedded in face-recognizing cameras, speech-recognition software, Internet search engines, and health-care robots, among other applications. The book's many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work. Its thorough (but unobtrusive) end-of-chapter notes containing citations to important source materials will be of great use to AI scholars and researchers. This book promises to be the definitive history of a field that has captivated the imaginations of scientists, philosophers, and writers for centuries.
Call Number: Q335 .N55 2010
Publication Date: 2009
Surviving AI by Calum ChaceArtificial intelligence is our most powerful technology, and in the coming decades it will change everything in our lives. If we get it right it will make humans almost godlike. If we get it wrong... well, extinction is not the worst possible outcome. "Surviving AI" is a concise, easy-to-read guide to what's coming, taking you through technological unemployment (the economic singularity) and the possible creation of a superintelligence (the technological singularity). Here's what some of the leading thinkers in the field have to say about it: A sober and easy-to-read review of the risks and opportunities that humanity will face from AI. Jaan Tallinn - co-founder of Skype Understanding AI - its promise and its dangers - is emerging as one of the great challenges of coming decades and this is an invaluable guide to anyone who's interested, confused, excited or scared. David Shukman - BBC Science Editor We have recently seen a surge in the volume of scholarly analysis of this topic; Chace impressively augments that with this high-quality, more general-audience discussion. Aubrey de Grey - CSO of SENS Research Foundation; former AI researcher It's rare to see a book about the potential End of the World that is fun to read without descending into sensationalism or crass oversimplification. Ben Goertzel - chairman of Novamente LLC Calum Chace is a prescient messenger of the risks and rewards of artificial intelligence. In "Surviving AI" he has identified the most essential issues and developed them with insight and wit - so that the very framing of the questions aids our search for answers. Chace's sensible balance between AI's promise and peril makes "Surviving AI" an excellent primer for anyone interested in what's happening, how we got here, and where we are headed. Kenneth Cukier - co-author of "Big Data" If you're not thinking about AI, you're not thinking. "Surviving AI" combines an essential grounding in the state of the art with a survey of scenarios that will be discussed with equal vigor at cocktail parties and academic colloquia. Chris Meyer - author of"Blur," "It's Alive," and "Standing on the Sun" The appearance of Calum Chace's book is of some considerable personal satisfaction to me, because it signifies the fact that the level of social awareness of the rise of massively intelligent machines has finally reached the mainstream. If you want to survive the next few decades, you cannot afford NOT to read Chace's book. Prof. Dr. Hugo de Garis - former director of the Artificial Brain Lab, Xiamen University, China "Surviving AI" is an exceptionally clear, well-researched and balanced introduction to a complex and controversial topic, and is a compelling read to boot. Sean O hEigeartaigh -executive director of Cambridge Centre for the Study of Existential Risk In"Surviving AI," Calum Chace provides a marvellously accessible guide to the swirls of controversy that surround discussion of whatis likely to be the single most important event in human history -the emergence of artificial superintelligence. Throughout, "Surviving AI"remains clear and jargon-free. David Wood - chair of London Futurists Artificial intelligence is the most important technology of our era. Technological unemployment could force us to adopt an entirely new economic structure, and the creation of superintelligence would be the biggest event in human history. "Surviving AI" is a first-class introduction to all of this. Brad Feld - co-founder of Techstars"
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